Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Rainbow Warrior Bombing

Just before midnight on July 10, 1985, Greenpeace’s flagship Rainbow Warrior was sunk while berthed at Waitemata Harbor in Auckland, New Zealand. Investigations showed that French Secret Service agents had placed two limpet mines on Rainbow Warrior’s hull and propeller. It was an attempt to prevent Greenpeace from protesting French nuclear testing in the Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia. Of the 11 crew on board the Rainbow Warrior, all but one made it to safety. The attack on the Rainbow Warrior caused an international scandal and greatly deteriorated the relationship between the once friendly countries of New Zealand and France. Greenpeace’s Flagship: The Rainbow Warrior By 1985, Greenpeace was an international environmentalist organization of great renown. Founded in 1971, Greenpeace had worked diligently over the years to help save whales and seals from being hunted, to stop the dumping of toxic waste into oceans, and to end nuclear testing around the world. To aid them in their cause, Greenpeace purchased a North Sea fishing trawler in 1978. Greenpeace transformed this 23-year-old, 417-ton, 131-foot-long trawler into their flagship, Rainbow Warrior. The name of the ship had been taken from a North American Cree Indian prophesy: â€Å"When the world is sick and dying, the people will rise up like Warriors of the Rainbow†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The Rainbow Warrior was easily recognizable by the dove carrying an olive branch at its bow and the rainbow that ran along its side. When the Rainbow Warrior arrived at Waitemata Harbor in Auckland, New Zealand on Sunday, July 7, 1985, it was as a respite between campaigns. The Rainbow Warrior and her crew had just returned from helping evacuate and relocate the small community that lived on Rongelap Atoll in the Marshall Islands. These people had been suffering from long-term radiation exposure caused by the fallout from the U.S. nuclear testing on the nearby Bikini Atoll. The plan was for the Rainbow Warrior to spend two weeks in nuclear-free New Zealand. It would then lead a flotilla of ships out to French Polynesia to protest the proposed French nuclear test at the Mururoa Atoll. The Rainbow Warrior never got a chance to leave port. The Bombing The crew aboard Rainbow Warrior had been celebrating a birthday before going to bed. A few of the crew, including Portuguese photographer Fernando Pereira, had stayed up a bit later, hanging out in the mess room, drinking the last few beers. Around 11:40 pm, an explosion rocked the ship. To some on board, it felt like Rainbow Warrior had been hit by a tugboat. It was later discovered that it was a limpet mine that had exploded near the engine room. The mine tore a 6  ½ by 8-foot hole in the side of the Rainbow Warrior.   Water gushed in. While most of the crew scrambled upward, 35-year-old Pereira headed to his cabin, presumably to retrieve his precious cameras. Unfortunately, that was when a second mine exploded. Placed near the propeller, the second limpet mine really rocked the Rainbow Warrior, causing Captain Pete Willcox to order everyone to abandon ship. Pereira, whether because he was knocked unconscious or trapped by a gush of water, was unable to leave his cabin. He drowned inside the ship. Within four minutes, the Rainbow Warrior tilted to its side and sank. Who Did It? It was really a quirk of fate that lead to the discovery of who was responsible for the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior. On the evening of the bombing, two men happened to take note of an inflatable dinghy and a van nearby that seemed to be acting a bit strangely. The men were intrigued enough that they took down the van’s license plate. This little piece of information set the police on an investigation that led them to the French Direction Generale de la Securite Exterieure (DGSE) – the French Secret Service. The two DGSE agents that had been posing as Swiss tourists and rented the van were found and arrested. (These two agents, Alain Mafart and Dominique Prieur, would be the only two people tried for this crime. They pled guilty to manslaughter and willful damage and received 10-year prison sentences.) Other DGSE agents were discovered to have come to New Zealand on board the 40-foot yacht Ouvea, but those agents managed to evade capture. In total, it is believed that approximately 13 DGSE agents were involved in what the French termed Operation Satanique (Operation Satan). Contrary to all of the building evidence, the French government at first denied any involvement. This blatant cover up greatly angered New Zealanders who felt that the Rainbow Warrior bombing was a state-sponsored terrorist attack against New Zealand itself. The Truth Comes Out On September 18, 1985, the popular French newspaper Le Monde published a story that clearly implicated the French government in the Rainbow Warrior bombing. Two days later, French Minister of Defense Charles Hernu and Director General of the DGSE Pierre Lacoste resigned from their positions. On September 22, 1985, French Prime Minister Laurent Fabius announced on TV: â€Å"Agents of the DGSE sank this boat. They acted on orders.† With the French believing that government agents should not be held responsible for actions conducted while following orders and New Zealanders completely disagreeing, the two countries agreed to have the UN act as a mediator. On July 8, 1986, UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar announced that the French were to pay New Zealand $13 million, give an apology, and stop trying to boycott New Zealand produce. New Zealand, on the other hand, had to give up the two DGSE agents, Prieur and Mafart. Once handed over to the French, Prieur and Mafart were supposed to serve out their sentences at Hao Atoll in French Polynesia; however, they were both released within two years – much to the dismay of New Zealanders. After Greenpeace threatened to sue the French government, an international arbitration tribunal was set up to mediate. On October 3, 1987, the tribunal ordered the French government to pay Greenpeace a total of $8.1 million. The French government has yet to officially apologize to Pereira’s family, but has given them an undisclosed sum of money as a settlement. What Happened to the Broken Rainbow Warrior? The damage done to the Rainbow Warrior was irreparable and so the wreck of the Rainbow Warrior was floated north and then re-sunk in Matauri Bay in New Zealand. The Rainbow Warrior became part of a living reef, a place where fish like to swim and recreational divers like to visit. Just above Matauri Bay sits a concrete-and-rock memorial to the fallen Rainbow Warrior. The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior did not stop Greenpeace from its mission. In fact, it made the organization even more popular. To keep up its campaigns, Greenpeace commissioned another ship, Rainbow Warrior II, which was launched exactly four years after the bombing. Rainbow Warrior II worked for 22 years for Greenpeace, retiring in 2011. At which time it was replaced with Rainbow Warrior III, a $33.4 million ship made specifically for Greenpeace.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Lack Of Psychical Activity - 1050 Words

The lack of psychical activity is another growing issue. Some people are quick to blame computers, television, and other sources as the driving forces behind childhood obesity. Food for thought: Who allows the child to sit in front of the computer or television for hours? Computers and televisions have become built in babysitters for some parents Television and the Internet may contribute to obesity rates a little; however, these are not the only factors that decide whether a child becomes obese. In fact, according to the WHO survey, parents are just as much at fault for making their children obese as outside influences are. Mothers tipped the scale with 91 percent of them being primary caregivers in the telephone survey, and were the ones responsible for the foods offered to, cooked for (and chosen by) the children. A parent allowing access to so many choices of unhealthy snacks convenient foods, and sitting in front of the television or Internet is only part of the problem. Medic al care and nutritional education of the children is obviously the parents’ responsibility, but so many parents are careless about basic nutrition and the need for exercise. In addition, how many parents just don’t have the gumption to â€Å"battle† with their preschoolers regarding what they eat? Some parents have the attitude that â€Å"at least they are eating SOMETHING†. We’ve all been there, at our wit’s end just trying to get a picky 2 year old toddler to eat some kind of fruit and thenShow MoreRelatedPositive, Positive And Positive Psychology1413 Words   |  6 Pagespressure in their academic, social, and economic aspects of life (Abela, 2002). As they struggle to cope with academic demands, any performance below their expectation leads to the feeling of hopelessness. Inferable from their adolescent conduct and the lack of experience in life can also result in difficulties of coping with day-to-day challenges. These circumstances can be difficult for some students to overcome, and thus they may decide to consider suicide as they can’t cope (Hunter O Connor, 2003)Read MoreLate Adulthood : The Stage Of The Human Life Cycle After The Age Of 65 Essay1701 Words   |  7 Pageslevels of stress, for with age... many older people cannot respond to extra physical demands (Papalia, Feldman, Martorell, 2012, p. 506). Frailty and weakness in the bones and muscles then becomes a new factor during this life stage. Another psychical change in old age is vision and hearing loss. The eyes of the old tend to need more light to see yet are also very sensitive to glare (Papalia, Feldman, Martorell, 2012, p. 508). There are also many conditions that deal with eyesight in late adulthoodRead MoreEating Disorders : The Most Silent Killer Of All Psychological Diseases1377 Words   |  6 Pagesduring their binges. Pinpointing the causes of it have proven difficult because the disorder has both mental and psychical compone nts, and it develops in Cadence Dobias Incorporated production Page 3 many age groups, races, socioeconomic classes, and both sexes. Because it is common to explain that genetic distortion could be the cause of most neurological and psychical diseases the problem with bulimia is that since it is so common it cannot be a single DNA mutation. If it were, howeverRead MoreParapsychology : The Scientific Study Of Paranormal Phenomena And Experiences1328 Words   |  6 PagesAbout Parapsychology Parapsychology can also be referred to as psychical research. The definition of parapsychology is the scientific study of paranormal phenomena and experiences. A paranormal phenomenon is a claim that a real anomalous effect is occurring. There may or may not be a real anomalous effect, but the individual has interpreted their experience as a paranormal one defines what a paranormal experience is. Unfortunately the importance of parapsychology has not been widely recognizedRead MoreThe Era And Medical Model771 Words   |  4 Pagesspanning from 1960 to 1980, was a time in which self-improvement programs within prisons were used to reform prisoners rather than utilizing forms of punishment. Prisoners were still held accountable for their crimes, but their overall mental and psychical health was taken into account. Prisoners were seen as needing help in learning how to properly life within society. A clinical professor of psychiatry, James Gilligan (2012) writes, â€Å"The only ratio nal purpose for a prison is to restrain those whoRead MoreWhy An Annual Mandatory Driving And Written Test Will Separate Those977 Words   |  4 Pagesand other senses while the written test may seperate those who maintained psychical abilites yet lack in other ability such as memory and if raod signs and rules of the road are still familior. According to Alzheimer s Society many indivduals with dementia may still be able to drive for some time until their dementia progresses. Part of the problem is that many older drivers feel that driving is a largely automatic activity and should be able to continue. The Alzheimer s Society also states thatRead MoreMelanie Klein1085 Words   |  5 Pagesimagines what is without, it offers an unconscious commentary on instinctual life and links feelings to objects and creates a new combination: the world of imagination. For Klein, unconscious phantasies underlie not only dreams but all thought and activity, both creative and destructive, including the expression of internal object relations. They modify external events, investing them with significance. While Freud’s ideas concerning children mostly came from working with adult patients, Klein wasRead MoreEffects Of The Black Psyche Caused By The Development Of Modern Civilization1175 Words   |  5 Pagesdevelop. As primary narcissism is an important part of the identification, phase, this lack of development of primary narcissism affects the development of the identification phase, which we will get into later. Now, let us depart from the topic of liberty and move on to the feature that Freud wrote best characterizes civilization: â€Å"[civilization’s] esteem and encouragement of man’s higher mental activities-his intellectual, scientific and artistic achievements† (Freud, Sigmund 47). In AmericanRead MoreWhat Is The Road To Resiliency1192 Words   |  5 Pagessociety. Some of the major problems that I have noticed in my community and that were listed by Levine, D. D. Perkins and D. V. Perkins (2005) are substance abuse, suicide, domestic violence and assault, arrest, poverty, unemployment, lack of healthcare, low income, lack of affordable housing, debt, gender inequality, not having access to trained professionals, child abuse and neglect, divorce, teen pregnancy, and rise of sexually transmitted disease. People have also been impacted by current eventsRead MoreLanguage As An Important Part Of Human Development1419 Words   |  6 Pagesfurther developed if a child learns more than one language. A child’s ability to develop and grow both socially and emotionally is very dependent on the child’s ability to express themselves through language, whether that be verbally, non-verbally (psychical) or through symbols, such as writing. As children begin to learn how to talk and learn words, they are actually beginning to learn and understand concepts. Words are far more than just making sounds, they have meaning, they help identify specific

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Components of a Good Writer Essay - 853 Words

Writing is one of most difficult subjects to master due to the writing tactics many writers use and the different tips followed for the various writing topics. A writer will elaborate strongly when pressure is not included during the time they are writing. If a writer feels pressure while writing a paper it will become visible to readers that the writer was not comfortable causing them confusion. Another important factor to take under consideration is the time that the author spends when writing because it will reflect on their critic’s opinions. When writers feel freedom to include all their ideas their writing becomes a jargon of ideas however, if given a prompt writing is more clear and straightforward. Prompts give writers the topic†¦show more content†¦To fill the blank white page is the only goal in the writers mind even though their words are all unorganized. When writing under pressure writers weaken their text and are inclined to make mistakes such as punc tuation and grammar without going noticed. Writing under pressure causes the writer to lose focus and leads to rush writing leading to common mistakes (Weingarten 7). When a deadline becomes a countdown stress will only pile up and every process associated with writing will become a horror movie. Therefore, writing under pressure will only lead to a page with words that the reader will not understand because it lacks conciseness. Prompts for writing provide a structured statement to argue for or against which makes the writer clear about their own opinions leading to a more organized writing sample. A prompt should be split into parts in order to develop an opinion based the statement, and a writer should ask questions relating to the writing prompt. It is often said that â€Å"free writing† or writing without a prompt leads writers to write more effectively however, prompts leads writers to research a topic they knew nothing about before. A prompt leads writers to become inf ormed about topics they knew nothing about. Writing prompts spark creativity that helps writers think about old memories in a new way or think about new concepts all together. Furthermore using writing prompts creates aShow MoreRelatedSelf-Regulation in Writing Essay680 Words   |  3 Pagesis a critical component in learning to write. There have been 25 studies that have shown that teaching students self-regulation strategies in writing has improved their ability to write. Self-regulation strategies have even improved writing in students with learning disabilities. So what is self-regulation in writing? In general self-regulation refers to the thoughts, feelings, and actions writers initiate to reach their writing goals. There are three types of self-regulation writers can impose toRead MoreHealth Care Provider and Faith Diversity1394 Words   |  6 Pagespatients and their view on their health. To better understand three of the world’s very popular religions this writer w ill discuss the spiritual perspective on healing, the critical components of healing, and what is important to people of a particular faith when cared for by health care providers. The three religions that will be discussed are Sikhism, Shintoism, and Buddhism. This writer will also compare these faiths to the Christian philosophy of faith and healing. HealthRead MoreCritical And Sophisticated Type Of Academic Writing And Can Easily Be Constructed By Breaking Down Its Basic Structure933 Words   |  4 PagesHowever incorrect use of these basic steps can lead the paper to lack cohesion making the paper unclear to the reader. Key components such as sentence structure, paragraph structure, content and presentation are vital in the construction of an effective academic essay. The academic essay is a response to a question using appropriate content. It is a style of writing in which the writer expresses a point of view on a particular topic by critically analysing and evaluating the information and then supportingRead MoreThey Say I Say, By Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, And Russel Durst1266 Words   |  6 PagesIn their book They Say I Say, Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel Durst outline strategies writers can use to avoid common mistakes often seen in academic writing. The book thoroughly outlines the different components that make up academic writing, such as initially summarizing what others have said before, responding with original ideas, proving a purpose to the writing, and connecting the writing in a logical and eloquent manner. The first part of They Say I Say focuses on how to properlyRead MoreEnglish Homework Eng99 Essay631 Words   |  3 Pages#2 Models For Writers Textbook Pages 172-180 Questions For Study and Discussion 1. What exactly does Zinsser mean by clutter (1)? How does he believe we can free ourselves of clutter? 2. Identify the main idea in each of the thirteen paragraphs. How is each paragraph related to Zinssers topic and purpose ? 3. In what ways do paragraphs 4-6 serve to illustrate the main idea of paragraph 3? (Glossary: Illustration) 4. In paragraph 11, Zinsser says that writers must constantlyRead MoreThe Main Components Of An Effective Writer s Workshop1048 Words   |  5 Pagesare changing and so too are traditional roles in diverse classrooms. No longer is writing just strictly done in the English class. Subjects are intertwining as students are connecting more and more of their worlds. Reading and writing are vital components of all subject matters, for early literacy is linked with academic achievement and beyond. Donald Graves, who many consider the founder of the Writing Workshop movement, states that writing is important because it is â€Å"a highly complex act that demandsRead MoreThe Importance Of Writing An Argumentative Essay969 Words   |  4 Pagesconstant practice and effort. At the start of this course I wasn’t a very good writer myself, and I can see the huge improvement this course made by looking at my first argumentative essay. I was able to identify and apply the requisites of a good argument essay. A well thought structure, reliable evidence, and a counterargument are three essential components of argumentative writing. The structure of an essay is the foundation to a good argumentative paper. Throughout this course I learned the importanceRead MoreReflective Reflection869 Words   |  4 Pagesthese essays for me this semester. I learned step by step how to write a good essay and how to have your readers be engaged in what you’re trying to tell them. Each essay I did has taught me something valuable I can take to the next level of English. I feel as if as the semester went by I did not take my writing that seriously and that reflected in my grades I received in each essay. It made me a better student and writer and it will reflect next semester. In this essay, I will reflect on what IRead MoreWriting A Paper For Class936 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent components to it such as being organized. So now when we think of all the different ways of writings we have to focus on one. We ask ourselves, what is good writing? Well I would say that good writing consist of many things, but we are going to focus on these three; making sure your writing has a main purpose, supporting your work with evidence, and using the correct grammar and spelling. Where as a person can talk about everything that comes to mind in their paper it is not a good idea.Read MoreSpacex Swot Analysis769 Words   |  4 Pagesvoting system. Design Module #14 Assignment p. The writer will apply the MEAL Plan (Main idea, Evidence, Analysis, and Link) as an effective strategy for constructing paragraphs. The Meal Plan also is an effective strategy for the writer to employ in the review and revision of each paragraph. Moreover, this guide shows how the writer may verify that each component of the MEAL Plan is intact or how each component may be effectively revised for each and every paragraph in the body

Ten Great Principles Of Life Purpose - 1349 Words

Have you ever been to see the Great Redwood trees in Northern California? Or seen pictures? Last summer I visited Armstrong Redwoods Natural Preserve near the Russian River. These trees are the tallest living things on our planet! Some are taller than 350 feet, and over 2,000 years old. Every one of those huge and awesome trees started out as a small seed, as something you could literally hold in your hand. Yet in that small seed was the entire blueprint for the manifestation and full-self-expression of these amazing living organisms. Just like these trees, you have your unique blueprint inside you too! There are seven great principles of life purpose I have discovered through research, working with others, and through my own life experience. These principles are part of Step 5 of my coaching system which is Find Your Passions. These principles will help you find and follow your passions, your own unique blueprint. Principle #1: You have a purpose. Each and every one of us does. We are born with it. Others may have a similar purpose, but your methods of manifesting it and bringing it into the world for others are unique to you and you only. Principle #2: It s your job to find it. No one else can do this for you no matter how much you may wish that someone else will pull out your gifts or discover you. These are victim-based ways of being that avoid YOUR responsibility for YOUR life. Thank God that you, and only you, are in control of your life. That is a gift;Show MoreRelatedThe Qur Exodus 20 And Matthew 5-7898 Words   |  4 Pagesthey had to turn away from their sin (Barker, 2002). The portion of Scripture known as the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:3-17, NIV): was entered into by God and the people of Israel. The purpose of the Ten Commandments is to point out sin. The Ten Commandments are some of the most influential words in the entire Bible, and they ve influenced thousands of years of thinking. Even in day-to-day lives, the Ten Commandments affect with how people think about right and wrong. In (Matthews 5:7) Jesus getsRead More4 MAT Book Review Clinton1448 Words   |  6 Pagesalways processing us to serve Him and His church better. These times of processing can occur because of crises, illness, persecution or discipline, self-choice, or providential circumstances.1 These moments of process are times where God teaches us life and leadership lessons. We are not only shaped by our training but also by our experiences. This book will help those who are trying to understand the stages of ministry. The Making of a Leader provides a map and the direction needed to reach ourRead MoreJoseph Frankl s Man s Search For Meaning1348 Words   |  6 Pagestextbook The Philosopher’s Way by John Chaffee I came upon the section in Chapter One that spoke of Viktor Frankl and his horrific imprisonment in the ghastly concentration camp. Frankl said â€Å"Man’s search for meaning is the primary motivation in his life. This meaning is unique and specific in that it must and can be fulfilled by him alone; only then does it achieve a significance which will satisfy his own will to meaning.† In that phrase I was curious to find out more about this man and how he putRead MoreThe Path of a Buddhist Essay1300 Words   |  6 Pagesaction, serves as a way to end suffering (The Noble Eightfold Path). In Buddhism, the belief is that life is suffering. Through out his life, Gautama, searched endlessly f or a means of liberation from this suffering. The Noble Eightfold Path is a series of principles that serve as guidelines to ethical and mental development which ideally lead to understanding the truth about all things. These principles are also intended to teach discipline and proper ways to interact in relationships with others (Bodhi)Read MorePhilosophy Of Servant Leadership1475 Words   |  6 Pagesconnection with the Christian religion because it is based on some of the beliefs and morals of the Bible. The Servant leadership philosophy has been relevant for decades, Robert Greenleaf is known as the modern creator. This paper will explore the principles of servant leadership and how they are used in comparison to the African culture and Judaism. Also, explain the similarities and differences of this philosophy in relation to the African culture and the religion of Judaism. African Culture ThroughoutRead MoreIslam And Christianity Comparative Religious Study1727 Words   |  7 Pagesbeliefs tend to resemble up to the point of Abraham. After Abraham, the ideas and theories start changing. In the Bible, Abraham was the son of Terah. God told Abraham that his descendants would grow and become slaves of a great nation, but then shall come out of that land with great possessions and wealth. The only issue with him possessing descendants was that Sarah, his wife, was barren and could not bear any child. Sarah then told Abraham to sleep with her maidservant, Hagar. From this, a son namedRead MoreTaoism And Confucianism978 Words   |  4 Pagesthe better. Lao-tzu who is the founder of Taoism is known for saying â€Å"Govern a great nation as you would cook a small fish† – do not overdo it (p. 180). By doing so, they will live a simple quiet life. In Confucianism, their belief is much different. The Confucians believe in a big government with an order. Confuciu s, the founder of Confucianism, believed if society lived by â€Å"Li†, everything will fall into place and life will function smoothly (p. 188). Confucius believed that God and spirits existedRead MoreThe Declaration of Independence1200 Words   |  5 Pagesinto two parts and within the two divided parts contains four main ideas within seven components. The declaration is not just any standard written document; it is a work of art painted by colonists who are driven by rage because of King George III of Great Britain injustices’ toward the colonies. This exemplifies that colonists took control and took part in creating the Declaration of Independence by voicing their opinions, hoping to acquire the freedom they deserve, â€Å"through time, to come together inRead MoreDemocracy And The American Dream1358 Words   |  6 Pagesdefinition for democracy is a system of government by the whole population of a state, typically through elected members. The original idea of democracy that America’s Founding Fathers promoted has shifted throughout the years. America was founded on the principles of freedom and liberty a nd many of these freedoms and liberties are being stripped away, or are at risk of being stripped away, by the American government. America is no longer a democracy, but it is an oligarchy. America is considered an oligarchyRead MoreMEDICAL TOURISM Malaysia has documentation of more than 20% expansion in medical tourism over the800 Words   |  4 Pagesstraightforward and easy. WILDLIFE TOURISM Wildlife tourism is viewing wildlife in a natural environment. Most of the country covered by steamy rain forest it carries a huge varieties of plant and animal species with huge offshore territory of the great diversity of life, with the countrys coastal waters, part of the Coral Triangle. Introduction of Organization: The World Wildlife Fund for Nature organization is start working 1972 in Malaysia. WWF Malaysia aim is to protect the natural environment. WWF Malaysia

Negotiation Intragroup Conflict

Questions: 1.How a High Score in Agreeableness can Help one Assume the role of an Effective Negotiator?2.How a High Score in Agreeableness can help one Prepare Himself Emotionally Prepared Before Negotiation.3.How a High Score in Extraversion can Help one Assume the role of an Effective Negotiator?4.How a High Score in Extraversion can help one Get Emotionally Prepared Before Negotiation? Answers: My Strengths: On the basis of the conduction of the IPIP test, I was being able to comprehend and evaluate the inner strengths that I possess, which can also be utilized for my professional purpose. Accordingly, the top scores generated by the test were in the areas of Agreeableness (98) and Extraversion (93). Hence, the remaining part of my assignment is a critical discussion and evaluation of the personal strengths I possess, and the possible application of the same in my professional domain. A variety of literary articles and research reports claim that these two attributes can enhance the negotiating skills of an employee. Hence, the assignment seeks to address how these strengths can help me assume the role of an effective negotiator. 1. Agreeableness is an integral behavioral trait that enables an individual to be more skilled, resourceful and tactful, while dealing with tough situations. People who are usually agreeable are less disruptive and less aggressive, and this largely helps people to mingle, and get along with other people. Even if a person possesses an ideology apparently contradicting the ideology of the second one, if the former is agreeable he can easily influence the latter (Cote et al. 2011). Being a highly agreeable individual, I can make friends with any one, and the opposite party finds it easier and less stressful to argue with me or contradict my personal opinion. Agreeable people usually tend to have an open, flexible approach to the other persons, and thus their behavior does not happen to infuriate anyone. Similarly, being an agreeable person, I can easily resolve disputes or differences of opinions, by retaining my composure and listening patiently to the perspective of the opposite party as well (Kersten and Hernandez 2016). 2. The emotional preparedness is a major key to the success in any form of negotiation. Prior to nay negotiation, I plan and try to work on the desired behavior while making negotiations. An agreeable individual is usual considerate and can patiently listen to and consider the perspective of other people, before putting forward his own opinion (Oveis et al. 2010). Thus, patience and composure are the two important qualities that should be incorporated while making negotiations. Hence, if the situation at hand is emotionally charged, I ensure that I retain my calm and composure, without expressing unnecessary emotions. Being an agreeable person, I have a calm, friendly approach that barely excites my opponent, yet before any sort of negotiation, I prepare myself in a way so that I do not anger my opponents (Grant and Wrzesniewski 2010). 3. Extraversion is an important personality trait that defines the nature of people who usually love to socialize, openly communicate and freely participate in any sort of action. An important aspect of negotiation related activity involves the process of decision-making. Hence, an extroverted person is more likely to negotiate successfully with a third party rather than a person who is more of a private person. An extroverted person can take others easily in his own confidence, and exercise his influence over the other, without making him wary of the same (Ellis and Young 2013). An extroverted individual usually has an outgoing, pleasant and approachable personality that helps him to take other people into confidence. (Rojot 2016) Above all, owing to the effective communication skills that usually each extrovert individual possesses, the opposing party can also be easily persuaded to settle and resolve the differences. As suggested by my high score in extraversion, I am highly an extroverted person. I am an eloquent speaker, and I can easily take other people into confidence, and influence them to submit to my decision. Being an extroverted person, I can get along with other people easily, and create a rapport with them. Extroverted people can be good negotiators as they can out forward their viewpoints, and the benefits inherent in the same, in a more direct and straightforward fashion (De Wit et al. 2012). The main advantage of negotiating matters through extroverted people is that they usually do not have anxiety problems, while communicating their perspectives. Thus, they can establish their arguments in a more persuasive way, convince the third party, without angering or exciting anyone in the process (Huang 2010). I am able to gel with people, accept their vantage points, and show a sense of understanding towards their social perspectives. Since I can freely communicate and mingle, I can easi ly form rapport that helps me to win the credibility of the opposite person (Montes 2012). Finally, my interactive skills and a positive approach to the problem help me resolve the differences, and ensure the desired outcome. 4. Being an extrovert, I do not have to groom my soft skills that much. Usually, I do not have any communication problem, while putting forth and explaining my standpoint. However, often an extroverted individual tends to digress, while conducting himself in an important affair. Hence, before going out for negotiation, I try to meditate, so that I can reflect and ponder over the issue to be negotiated . An organized approach is needed, and owing to an extroverted nature, I often tend to get carried away by unnecessary or not so important ideas. Hence, I try to arrange my thoughts and ideas systematically, and practice communicating the same to my opposite person (Wall and Dunne 2012). After analyzing and evaluating the above research findings, I have come to the conclusion that being an extroverted person, as well as someone possessing an agreeable personality I have impressive communication and persuasive skills that can help me in negotiation. However, I need to ensure that I remain focused and composed while seeking to negotiate. Reference List: Ct, S., Kraus, M.W., Cheng, B.H., Oveis, C., Van der Lwe, I., Lian, H. and Keltner, D., 2011. Social power facilitates the effect of prosocial orientation on empathic accuracy.Journal of personality and social psychology,101(2), p.217. De Wit, F.R., Greer, L.L. and Jehn, K.A., 2012. The paradox of intragroup conflict: a meta-analysis. Ellis, A.W. and Young, A.W., 2013.Human cognitive neuropsychology: A textbook with readings. Psychology Press. Grant, A.M. and Wrzesniewski, A., 2010. I wont let you down or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance.Journal of Applied Psychology,95(1), p.108. Huang, J.C., 2010. Unbundling task conflict and relationship conflict: The moderating role of team goal orientation and conflict management.International Journal of Conflict Management,21(3), pp.334-355. Kersten, G.E. and Hernndez, J.E., 2016. Group Decision and Negotiation. Montes, C., Rodrguez, D. and Serrano, G., 2012. Affective choice of conflict management styles.International Journal of Conflict Management,23(1), pp.6-18. Oveis, C., Horberg, E.J. and Keltner, D., 2010. Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self-other similarity.Journal of personality and social psychology,98(4), p.618. Rojot, J., 2016.Negotiation: from theory to practice. Springer. Wall, J.A. and Dunne, T.C., 2012. Mediation research: A current review.Negotiation Journal,28(2), pp.217-244.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Impact of Diverse Cultures on Play Therapy-Samples for Students

Question: Demonstrate your ability to speculate as to the inner world of the child you observed. Answer: Introduction I am very passionate about the topic of Child play. Im currently studying about childrens development in Malaysia. In children, the play is a fundamental characteristic that helps one to identify their behavior. The play is also an educational tool for the children in different aspects. There have been debates on whether play has a biological element. There has been a rhythm identified among children of similar cultural backgrounds (Glover Landreth 2015). These children have been found to have very similar ways of play spontaneously. A majority of writers have found play to be an essential tool for children, especially in socialization. However, the educational theorists say that play is just a waste of energy, and me disagree with them. Play is vital to a childs emotional, cognitive, physical and imaginative strengths. Importance of Play to Childrens Development Play is important to children in a variety of ways; it helps the children express their personalities and ego, and it also enables them to do what is of utmost interest to them. It also has a cathartic function that is associated with it. Play helps the children get over issues that could be stressing them out. Additionally, it helps children in relating with other children and enables them to build relationships with them (Ginsburg 2007). Play also helps children to become more aware of their bodies as they play, and they know how and where they can move their bodies. Play also enables parents to learn their childrens body language. Finally, it creates a sense of self-worth for the children as they face various challenges and overcome them. It is therefore important to let children play to gain all these benefits. Developmental Assessment in Children The experiences that children have earlier on in life shape the workings of their brains. These experiences also impact the type of relationships these children form as well as their response to stressful situations. This is because, during the childrens formative years, thats the period when the brain goes through the highest growth levels thus influencing their emotional and social growth (Imagawa 1984). It is the time when the childrens thinking starts to develop, their language improves, their movements start to be more defined, and they start to comprehend their feelings as well as those of others. It is therefore imperative to ensure that during the formative years, children are exposed to experiences that will positively impact. This is to ensure that they develop in the right manner and have a proper foundation for their lives. All the aspects of the development of children are interconnected. The physical, emotional, cognitive and social developments of the children influence each other. Social development refers to the growth in the ability of children to relate and get along with their environment and be able to adapt. This is shown in the childrens emotional regulation and temperament. This is how well children control their emotions as they react to their environment. Childrens skills and competence in a social setting is also an indicator of their social development (Tandon et al. 2015). Their emotional bonds and attachment to their career also reflect on their social development. A majority of children want attention to be directed towards them. Otherwise, they result to crying and whimpering. Play is a major contributor to social development as it helps children to interact with other children and prepares them for other more involved social interactions. Children who are not able to relate to other children, or who always have disputes with others show that they have not properly developed socially. They may depict signs of sibling rivalry, or they may be aggressive to other children. There should be help directed towards them to improve their social skills. Emotional development is how well children can control the way they react to their environment given different situations. Children are not expected to be always happy to prove they are developing emotionally. This is because it is normal for them to cry to show that they need something and they also throw tantrums to communicate something more pressing (Piaget 1952). However, if they do so for too long without calming down after a while, it may be a sign of a bigger problem, and it is important for this issue to be corrected. Over time, when children can control their emotions, it shows that they are developing emotionally. Cognitive development is depicted in the ability of the child to think creatively and critically. The child is also able to retain information and work to achieve given goals. Additionally, the child can synthesize and analyze information and can also be able to solve problems faced (Frost 1998). A child who shows an interest in learning depicts signs of cognitive development. Physical development is presented in the well-being of the child as seen physically. The child slowly increases in size and is also able to carry out various activities. Instinct Practice Theory One theory that explains growth and development is the Instinct Practice Theory by Karl Gross. It regards play origins as being instinctive. Nevertheless, play is found to be a significant activity in preparing children for their activities as adults. It also speaks of the importance of children imitating adults in their play and how this helps them to survive (Ginsburg et al. 2007). This theory is therefore important because it supports play as being vital for the development of children and helps them be able to survive and relate to other people. The Pathways Model The Pathways model shows the different pathways that the growth and development of children. This model indicates that the behavior that children depict when they grow up is a cumulative sum of the different behavior that they show as they are growing up (Brussoni et al. 2012). For instance, a child who may show characteristics of not being school ready will then have a poor relationship with fellow children. Solitary play is the type of play where the children are very engrossed in play, and they are not interacting with other children. If the child integrates this kind of play with other types such as parallel play and associative play, it has a positive impact on that child (Frost 1998). However, if the child only uses this mode of play, it is likely to have negative consequences to the child. The child may be unable to socialize, then fail in schoolwork, and could turn into a criminal later in life. In this regard, it is important for research to show whether these activities are mutually exclusive or influenced by preceding events. It is therefore essential to ensure that childrens modes of play are evaluated. This is to ensure that negative factors do not accrue leading to a negative result. Therapeutic Play The therapeutic play is very effective in children. It involves the use of a safe environment in which children can play with as many toys as possible with minimum limits. This may include the children individually or as a group. This play brings healing to the children with no need for medication. If necessary, the therapists can talk to the children to find out what they think about the session (Ginsburg 2007). Therapeutic play helps children to know how to deal with problems they may face which they do not have any control over. This play, therefore, helps children to view their future in a positive light. Play Therapy Dimensions Model This is a standard model for quality therapy play and supervision. The model has four elements namely; consciousness, directive, nonconsciousness, and nondirective. Consciousness refers to the verbal and play activities by the child while the directiveness relates to the level of the therapist's involvement and interpretation (Glover Landreth 2015). Hence, the child can play while the therapist observes to note what needs to be corrected in how the child is playing. This model is important because it ensures that negative child behavior is fixed as soon as it is observed and the child continually learns the right way to behave. Planning Play Therapy Using Play Therapy Dimensions Model The therapist will organize the toys to be used in play based on the childs age and the issue that requires being solved. The child will then move into the play area individually for maximum observation to enable corrections to be made where necessary (Imagawa 1984). The child will then use consciousness and non-consciousness to display his or her feelings in activities. The therapist, on the other hand, will use directives or be non-directive in dealing with the child. Thematic Content of Play In the play, children represent different themes that can be used in therapy sessions or to create a diagnosis. A child analyst can, therefore, use the observation technique to derive the themes in play sessions (Brussoni et al. 2012). In the case of play therapy, the therapist will organize a play based on the macro themes observed. Children could show signs of aggressive behavior, not socializing with others among others. Toys Children Use in Play At different ages, children prefer using certain toys. Additionally, different types of play require different toys. From birth to about six months, children use their eyes and ears to play (Tamis-LeMonda et al. 2012). They have chime toys and cloth dolls to play with. Up to one year, they like using teething and bath toys. Between one and two years, they use playhouses. Then they like using tricycles and stuffed animals. Therefore, based on their ages, they like different toys. Solitary play will use toys such as crayons and a pad to bring out creativity while associative play will use toys that ensure interaction such as play houses and bouncing castles. Play Therapy Session The play therapy settings that I experienced involved Jim, who is six years old. Jim had a range of toys ranging from crayons, pencils, and a writing pad for the child to be as creative as he can, and it also involved drawings for him to express his feelings and thoughts. The first form of play included story telling. First, I told Jim a story that contains different emotions and then asked him to identify the feelings in the story. He had some difficulty identifying some emotions, and I helped him to identify them by giving different suggestions. I then told him to tell a story and identify the emotions involved. Next, I asked him to color the different emotions on a piece of paper and use different colors for different emotions. Finally, I asked him to color the different emotions he had felt in his life and identify when he felt them. This enabled me to know some feelings that were misunderstood and corrected them to give him a better understanding. Another leading toy we used was a stuffed dragon. This was useful when Jim seemed frightened about something. To help him overcome it, I gave him the responsibility of comforting the dragon. This helped me achieve various goals such as; creating a positive relationship between us, helping him to participate freely in therapy, and it helped me empathize with his feelings. Play therapy is more important to a child than regular play because the therapist can come in and help the child when that child seems confused or lost and needs help. As the child is playing, the therapist can assess the childs behavior and help encourage good behavior and correct harmful habits. In the therapeutic play, children hence communicate their feelings in the ways that they play and how they interact with their toys. In this case, Jim used colors to express his emotions and where I made use of a stuffed dragon, he made me aware of his feelings from the way he was comforting the dragon. From the session I held with Jim, I was able to learn that he was not happy because he had recently lost his father and then they had moved to a strange place. The primary cause of this unhappiness was that he was no longer able to see his father and friends anymore. Additionally, he stopped doing various things such as going to the park with his family which he liked. From this, I deduced that he felt neglected because he didnt spend as much time with his parents as he used to. He also felt lonely because he had not made any friends yet. This, therefore, made me teach him how he can interact with other children to make new friends. I also talked to his mother and voiced my concerns from the sessions and said what I learned about Jim. Childrens Responsible Behavior Whenever children are rewarded for doing good activities, this motivates them to keep doing good things to keep receiving the rewards. As a result, they grow into responsible children. Conversely, when they are in the wrong, they should be punished to know that what they are doing is wrong. For instance, they can have a particular place where they sit when they are in the wrong to reflect on their deeds and correct them. Impact of Diverse Cultures on Play Therapy The clients who come to an individual therapist could be of different cultural and social backgrounds. This could affect the therapy sessions in that; certain forms of behavior that may be considered acceptable in one culture may be found unacceptable in other cultures (Vygotsky 1967). People may have different religious beliefs which therefore cause them to believe in opposing things. This could lead to opposition of various tools that could be used in play. Additionally, there could be entirely different ways in which emotions are expressed in different cultures. These could, therefore, cause disagreements between the therapist and the client which could be disadvantageous for the child. Evaluation of Working of Sessions To analyze how well my method is working, I, for instance, could put Jim in a social setting and see how well he interacts with other children. This will show how he has developed emotionally, socially, and psychologically. The Cognitive Domain has six levels. These are evaluation, synthesis, analysis, application, comprehension, and knowledge. It shows how much mental effort is required as one moves up different levels (Tandon et al. 2015). For instance, one must be able to have an awareness of the information to be able to comprehend it. As one improves from one level to the next, more skills one needs to be equipped with. The Affective Domain has five levels and as one moves from one level to the next, the more the skills required. Levels are: characterization, organization, valuing, reporting, and receiving. In this domain, one moves from external to internal motivation. As one moves up the levels, the more skills that are required. The Psychomotor-Behavioral Domain is basically for information. It involves neuro-muscular actions and expects physical dexterity (Piaget 1952). It has five levels namely: naturalization, articulation, precision, manipulation, and imitation. Teachers should incorporate the three domains in their lessons and follow them from the simplest to the most complex. Inner World of a Child From my session with Jim, I was able to see that he is very creative. This was shown in the types of pictures he drew after our session was over. He seemed to be having much brain activity that he expressed in his actions as opposed to in words. Jim was very caring to the stuffed dinosaur which in a way showed that he needed to be cared for in such a manner and felt neglected. Jim was also able to express how he felt when he lost his father and when they moved from a place he had grown accustomed. When I instructed him to tell a story of his own, it also helped him express his feelings and what he would have preferred. This session, therefore, helped me see his inner world based on how he felt and I contributed to getting him through the difficulties he was facing. When children seem to have trouble in their daily lives, it is important to take measures to help them. This will ensure that they grow in all aspects and not just in some. References Brussoni, M. et al., 2012. Risky play and childrens safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(9), pp.31343148. Frost, J.L., 1998. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development. Triennial National Conference IPA/USA, p.18. Ginsburg, K.R. et al., 2007. The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bond?: Focus on Children in Poverty abstract. Pediatrics, 119(1), pp.182188. Ginsburg, K.R., 2007. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics, 32(4), pp.413438. Glover, G. Landreth, G.L., 2015. Child-Centered Play Therapy. In Handbook of Play Therapy: Second Edition. pp. 93118. Imagawa, M., 1984. Play and child development. Kurinikaru sutadi = Clinical study, 5, pp.8521026. Piaget, J., 1952. Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 3(6), pp.1314. Tamis-LeMonda, C.S., Baumwell, L. Cristofaro, T., 2012. Parent-child conversations during play. First Language, 119(1), pp.182191. Tandon, P.S., Saelens, B.E. Christakis, D.A., 2015. Active play opportunities at child care. Pediatrics, 5(September 2015), pp.618. Vygotsky, L.S., 1967. Play and Its Role in the Mental Development of the Child. Soviet Psychology, 135(6), pp.e1425-31